Special Issue: Semantic Informational Technologies

Vladimir Fomichov, Anton Železnikar, Matjaž Gams, Jožef Stefan, Drago Torkar, Jožef Stefan, Editorial Board, Juan Carlos, Augusto, Argentina, Costin Badica, Romania (+20 others)
2010 unpublished
papers for their contributions and to all of the referees for their precious comments ensuring the high quality of the accepted papers and making the reading as well the editing of this special issue a rewarding activity. Abstract. This article describes the automatic processing of medical texts in order to extract important patient characteristics, thus turning the free text description into a structured internal representation. Shallow text analysis is implemented due to the medical language
more » ... omplexity. The paper sketches the information extraction process and discusses the role of domain knowledge in text analysis. The approach to domain model construction is presented. Evaluation results concerning extraction of patient diagnoses and status are summarised. Povzetek: Predstavljena je metoda za gradnjo semantičnih podatkov o pacientih iz nestrukturiranega besedila. In this paper, the approaches to building and expanding conceptual classes are presented. The classes are built with syntactic and semantic information provided by a corpus. Then, expansion is addressed by using the objects of syntactic relations found in the corpus. Relations between classes are thus designed. They are called induced relations. Then we use objects of induced syntactic relations (called complementary objects) to expand conceptual classes. We propose an automatic experimental protocol to measure the relevance of the provided concepts. The protocol helps alleviating the judgment effort of a human expert. The expansion method is evaluated and mixed in order to provide the most reliable technique in expanding conceptual classes. Povzetek: V prispevku je opisan postopek izgradnje konceptualnih dreves s pomočjo spleta in korpusov. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the development of a Semantic Web of a new generation, or of a Multilingual Semantic Web, is outlined. Firstly, the paper grounds the possibility of using a mathematical model being the kernel of the theory of K-representations and describing a system of 10 partial operations on conceptual structures for building semantic representations (or text meaning representations) of, likely, arbitrary sentences and discourses in English, Russian, French, German, and other languages. The possibilities of using SK-languages defined by the theory of K-representations for building semantic annotations of informational sources and for constructing semantic representations of discourses pertaining to biology and medicine are illustrated. Secondly, an original strategy of transforming the existing Web into a Semantic Web of a new generation with the well-developed mechanisms of understanding natural language texts is described. The third subject of this paper is a description of the correspondence between the inputs and outputs of the elaborated algorithm of semantic-syntactic analysis and of its advantages; the semantic representations of the input texts are the expressions of SK-languages (standard knowledge languages). The input texts can be the statements, questions, and commands from the sublanguages of English, Russian, and German. The algorithm has been implemented by means of the programming language PYTHON. Povzetek: Predstavljena je formalizacija multilingualnega semantičnega spleta. Given its effectiveness to better understand data, ontology has been used in various domains including artificial intelligence, biomedical informatics and library science. What we have tried to promote is the use of ontology to better understand media (in particular, images) on the World Wide Web. This paper describes our preliminary attempt to construct a large-scale multi-modality ontology, called AutoMMOnto, for web image classification. Particularly, to enable the automation of text ontology construction, we take advantage of both structural and content features of Wikipedia and formalize real world objects in terms of concepts and relationships. For visual part, we train classifiers according to both global and local features, and generate middle-level concepts from the training images. A variant of the association rule mining algorithm is further developed to refine the built ontology. Our experimental results show that our method allows automatic construction of large-scale multi-modality ontology with high accuracy from challenging web image data set. Povzetek: Prispevek opisuje izgradnjo velike multimodalne spletne ontologije AutoMMOnto. This paper describes a text enrichment framework and the corresponding document representation model that integrates natural language processing, information extraction, entity resolution, automatic document categorization and summarization. We also describe the implementation of the framework and give several illustrative use cases where the service-oriented approach has proven to be useful. Povzetek: Opisan je okvir za obogatitev naravnega besedila. Distributed intelligent control systems compared to traditional centralized manufacturing architectures provide much more powerful instruments for developing robust, flexible and reconfigurable factory automation systems. The basic characteristic of any distributed system is a communication between the system's components needed for information exchange and coordination of activities for accomplishing collective goals. To achieve effective knowledge exchange and integration in open, reconfigurable environments, an explicit definition of semantics is needed to capture the data and information being processed and communicated. The paper shows how semantics and ontologies can be employed in industrial systems, considering particularly distributed, agent-based solutions. A new manufacturing ontology providing semantic model of production planning and scheduling, material handling and customer order specification is presented. Its integration with an agent-based simulation and control system MAST is demonstrated. Povzetek: S pomočjo ontologij in semantike je izdelan vmesnik za agentni sistem. The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry is knowledge intensive field. Significant heterogeneity of the forms of knowledge mobilized in the construction industry prevented adoption of IT based knowledge management in the field. Recently, a large international initiative is launched to provide extensive IT support that will enable model-based interoperability among all professions in the AEC industry. Resulting standards coupled with Semantic Web technologies have potential to serve as the foundation for the knowledge management in the AEC field. The paper gives an overview of the both technologies and depicts ways in which they can provide knowledge management support for the AEC industry. Povzetek: Predstavljena je vloga semantičnega spleta pri upravljanju znanja v industriji. Key exchange protocols allow two or more parties communicating over a public network to establish a common secret key called a session key. Due to their significance in building a secure communication channel, a number of key exchange protocols have been suggested over the years for a variety of settings. Among these is the so-called S-3PAKE protocol proposed by Lu and Cao for passwordauthenticated key exchange in the three-party setting. In the current work, we are concerned with the password security of the S-3PAKE protocol. We first show that S-3PAKE is vulnerable to an off-line dictionary attack in which an attacker exhaustively enumerates all possible passwords in an off-line manner to determine the correct one. We then figure out how to eliminate the security vulnerability of S-3PAKE. Povzetek: Prispevek se ukvarja z varnostjo v protokolu S-3PAKE. This paper presents an approach in the domain of collaborative systems for working and learning practices called KP-Lab System. This system provides integrated multifunctional application with interesting end-user functionalities as manifold semantic based manipulation possibilities with shared objects of activities in real time, a support for management and analysis of knowledge practices, tools for synchronous and asynchronous communication, tools for personal organization and customization of working spaces, etc. Theoretical background for presented system is provided by trialogical learning, an approach in the domain of collaborative learning or working, with several similar aspects to existing constructivist approaches to learning. These approaches and some other theories, e.g. activity theory and knowledge building had a strong influence on specification of trialogical learning characteristics and their analysis in real settings. Presented research and development results have been achieved in FP6 IST project called KP-Lab (Knowledge Practices Laboratory). KP-Lab is an ambitious project that focuses on developing a theory, methods and tools aimed at facilitating innovative practices of sharing, creating and working with knowledge in education and workplaces. Research and development are integrated into co-evolutionary process that consists of collaboration between various types of project partners and other stakeholders This paper focuses mainly on the technological results of this project, the KP-Lab System, presenting its architecture, main tools and interesting features provided by this system, e.g. its strong semantics-based character. Povzetek: Predstavljen je sistem KP-Lab za sodelovanje pri učenju. This paper introduces a new method in the area of platform independent modeling and the development of graphical user interfaces. The method bridges the gap between traditional MB-UIDEs and the modern web methodologies by enabling the modeling and development of both traditional and web user interfaces. The method is based on a proposed Presentation model and a Task Action Model which drive the development process. The modeling notation in both models is done with use of UML, and the development process is supported by a UML-compliant adaptive modeling tool. Descriptions of both the model and the method of application are included. An evaluation done using a JavaEE and a Swing widget toolkit is also mentioned. Povzetek: Predstavljena je nova metoda za izdelavo platform za razvoj grafičnih vmesnikov. Convex hull is widely used in computer graphic, image processing, CAD/CAM and pattern recognition. In this work, we derive some new convex hull properties and then propose a fast algorithm based on these new properties to extract convex hull of the object in binary image. It is achieved by computing the extreme points, dividing the binary image into several regions, scanning the regions existing vertices dynamically, calculating the monotone segments, and merging these calculated segments. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed algorithm has low complexities of time and space. Povzetek: Predstavljen je nov algoritem za obdelavo binarnih slik. Testing takes a considerable amount of the time and resources that are spent on producing software. Testing accounts for approximately 50% of the cost of the development of a software system. Therefore, techniques to reduce the cost of testing would be useful. This paper presents an automatic test-data generation technique that uses a genetic algorithm (GA). This technique applies the concepts of dominance relations between nodes to reduce the cost of software testing. These concepts are used to define a new fitness function to evaluate the generated test data. Finally, the paper presents the results of the experiments that have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed GA technique compared to the random testing (RT) technique. These experiments are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the new fitness function and the technique used to reduce the cost of software testing. Povzetek: Predstavljen je genstski algoritem za zmanjšanje števila testnih podatkov.
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