Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel: A Novel Site for Neuroprotection

Tomofusa Yamauchi, Satoshi Kashii, Hiroki Yasuyoshi, Shen Zhang, Yoshihito Honda, Akinori Akaike
2003 Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  
PURPOSE. It has been shown that bradykinin (BK) protects retinal neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity, but it was not clear how BK inhibits glutamate excitotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of opening the mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (Mit K (ATP)) channel on glutamate excitotoxicity and the protective effect of BK using cultured retinal neurons. METHODS. Primary cultures were obtained from the retina of fetal rats (gestation
more » ... ays 17-19). Glutamate neurotoxicity was assessed by 10-minute exposure to 1 mM glutamate followed by 1-hour incubation in glutamate-free medium, using the trypan blue exclusion method. BK, diazoxide (the opener of the Mit K (ATP) channel), 5HD, and glibenclamide (blockers of the Mit K (ATP) channel) were applied simultaneously with glutamate. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured as the ratio of 590:527 nm fluorescence of JC-1. RESULTS. Cell viability was markedly reduced by 10-minute exposure to 1 mM glutamate followed by 1-hour incubation in glutamate-free medium, and glutamate induced mitochondrial depolarization of retinal neurons. BK and diazoxide protected retinal neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity and inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization. These actions of BK and diazoxide were inhibited by the coapplication of 5HD and glibenclamide. Furthermore, diazoxide inhibited the sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) toxicity, but did not inhibit the 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1, NO, and superoxide donor) toxicity. CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest that BK and diazoxide protect retinal neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity by opening the Mit K (ATP) channel. It is suggested that opening of the Mit K (ATP) channel inhibited glutamate-induced generation of superoxide. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.
doi:10.1167/iovs.02-0815 pmid:12766083 fatcat:3vxno745xncw3ao3kqj4ujojhe