A Survey of Cross-lingual Word Embedding Models

Sebastian Ruder, Ivan Vulić, Anders Søgaard
2019 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
Cross-lingual representations of words enable us to reason about word meaning in multilingual contexts and are a key facilitator of cross-lingual transfer when developing natural language processing models for low-resource languages. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive typology of cross-lingual word embedding models. We compare their data requirements and objective functions. The recurring theme of the survey is that many of the models presented in the literature optimize for the same
more » ... ectives, and that seemingly different models are often equivalent, modulo optimization strategies, hyper-parameters, and such. We also discuss the different ways cross-lingual word embeddings are evaluated, as well as future challenges and research horizons.
doi:10.1613/jair.1.11640 fatcat:vwlgtzzmhfdlnlyaokx2whxgva