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Grounding Normativity in Biology: The Unexpressed Rules of Core Cognition
Saul Kripke's (1982) sceptical take on Wittgenstein's rule-following paradox challenges us to find facts that can justify one interpretation of a symbol's past use over another. While Ruth Millikan (1990) has answered this challenge by appealing to biological purposes, her answer has been criticized for failing to account for the normativity of rules like addition, which require explicit representations. In this paper, I offer a defense of Millikan. I claim that we can explain how we builddoi:10.13128/pam-8037 fatcat:mckgzb5eavgk7onmgyeutxzrla