Local online kernel ridge regression for forecasting of urban travel times

James Haworth, John Shawe-Taylor, Tao Cheng, Jiaqiu Wang
2014 Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies  
Accurate and reliable forecasting of traffic variables is one of the primary functions of Intelligent Transportation Systems. Reliable systems that are able to forecast traffic conditions accurately, multiple time steps into the future, are required for advanced traveller information systems. However, traffic forecasting is a difficult task because of the nonlinear and nonstationary properties of traffic series. Traditional linear models are incapable of modelling such properties, and typically
more » ... perform poorly, particularly when conditions differ from the norm. Machine learning approaches such as artificial neural networks, nonparametric regression and kernel methods (KMs) have often been shown to outperform linear models in the literature. A bottleneck of the latter approach is that the information pertaining to all previous traffic states must be contained within the kernel, but the computational complexity of KMs usually scales cubically with the number of data points in the kernel. In this paper, a novel kernel-based machine learning (ML) algorithm is developed, namely the local online kernel ridge regression (LOKRR) model. Exploiting the observation that traffic data exhibits strong cyclic patterns characterised by rush hour traffic, LOKRR makes use of local kernels with varying parameters that are defined around each time point. This approach has 3 advantages over the standard single kernel approach: (1) It allows parameters to vary by time of day, capturing the time varying distribution of traffic data; (2) It allows smaller kernels to be defined that contain only the relevant traffic patterns, and; (3) It is online, allowing new traffic data to be incorporated as it arrives. The model is applied to the forecasting of travel times on London's road network, and is found to outperform three benchmark models in forecasting up to 1 h ahead. j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / t r c used for short term traffic forecasting, which can be broadly separated into two categories: (1) parametric methods, and; (2) machine learning (ML) methods. 1 The former type includes statistical (space) time series methods such as the (space-time) auto-regressive integrated moving average (ST)ARIMA model family (Billings and Yang,
doi:10.1016/j.trc.2014.05.015 fatcat:oeb3vj7z6jaijndauo2d7nzqf4