What Does It Mean to Replace Ecology with Mesology and Resources with Nourishment?

After having explored what is at stake in Berque's efforts to overcome the pitfalls of a Western paradigm characterized by dualism between nature and culture and the conception of a substantial and abstract subject, I will show to what extent his notions of mesology and mediance help us think through the ecological crisis which cannot be reduced to issues such as global warming and the depletion of resources, but which concerns our perception of ourselves, our relationships with others and the
more » ... eaning of our temporary stay on earth. The replacement of ecology by mesology leads to my own approach which is to make interaction with nature and other beings a chapter of a philosophy of existence that takes into account the materiality of our life, that is to say the fact that we live in and depend upon natural and cultural things such as water, food, river, trees, but also landscapes and towns. This phenomenology of nourishment highlights the corporality of the subject and insists upon the dimension of pleasure and enjoyment. The phenomenological description of eating, dwelling, walking, living in a place and being co-resident with other human and non-human existences, breathes new life into the concept of human existence. I shall further outline the political consequences of this phenomenology. 要旨 ベルクの研究は、自然と文化および実体と抽象の概念という西洋の2分法 をいかに乗り越えるかという課題に取り組むことであった。ベルクの提唱 するメゾロジー(風土論)とメディアンス(風土性)は、現代のエコロジー Inter Faculty, vol. 7, FRAGMENTATION AND DIVERGENCE − 144 − に新たな光を照射した。地球温暖化や資源枯渇問題に限定するのではなく、 我々の知覚、他者との関係、地球に住まうことの意味をも含めて包括的に 論じるのである。 エコロジー(環境)をメゾロジー(風土)と捉えることにより、自然と他 の存在物の相互関係を、新たな視点に立って、存在論的に論じることが可 能となった。我々は実際に水、食料、河川、樹木、さらには風景、都市の ような自然と文化の造形物の中で、ともに生活をしているのである。食物 をめぐる現象は主体の身体性に結びついており、快楽と歓びと深く関わる。 食、住、歩行、人々との暮らし等の現象の記述は、 人間存在の概念に新 たな生命を吹き込むのである。さらに本論ではこれらの現象の政治的側面 についても論じる。 キーワード:二元論、エコロジー(環境) 、存在、メゾロジー(風土) 、 食物、現象 What Does It Mean to Replace Ecology with Mesology and Resources with Nourishment? − 145 − By reading Fûdo of Watsuji and by following Berque in his effort to overcome an abstract, substantial, disembodied conception of the subject, considered apart from the ecological, technical and cultural conditions of our existence, we pave the way for a phenomenology that is no longer focused on the individual dimension of existence. This is why it is new, compared to Heidegger's understanding of the human condition, for instance in Being and Time (1927). We human beings live a dual existence. We have our personal life and endeavours, but our individual death is not the end of the world. The latter welcomes us when we are born and it will last after our individual deaths, as Arendt (1983: 95) said. This world, which is common to past, current and future generations, also entails cultural and natural beauty. Therefore ethics does not only concern individuals. In our daily life, when we are cold, or when we enjoy the summer, we are referring to the public world, to the traditions, to the habits and tools we have in common with other people. In a nutshell, instead of relying on an individualistic conception of our in-der-Welt-sein (Being in the world), such a phenomenology refreshes our understanding of our relationship with nature, our inhabiting the earth, our cohabitation with other human beings and other living beings, and the meaning of the word 'world'. This is also what we find in the Japanese Ningen, which refers to the person, but also to the community. The same with yo no naka. Yo refers to aida, between, and naka, within (Watsuji 2003: 24). The conception of the human being as an individual (hito) is a fiction.
doi:10.15068/00147463 fatcat:nfgjn6sqlfbkhi2btgq3a7bdua