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Counterfeit metal and paper money produced and launched by domestic and foreign counterfeiters during the period 1818-1914 used to widely circulate in the markets of Istanbul and throughout the country by intensifying on certain currency types from time to time. It became inevitable that a wide variety of socio-economic outcomes emerged in an economy where these counterfeits could be transferred to the market in a more or less concentrated way. The major problems that counterfeit money maydoi:10.20990/kilisiibfakademik.428700 fatcat:s4upxvvfgjhetddhbk6iu5etka