Thyroid hormone action in mitochondria
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Triiodothyronine (T3) is considered a major regulator of mitochondrial activity. In this review, we show evidence of the existence of a direct T3 mitochondrial pathway, and try to clarify the respective importance of the nuclear and mitochondrial pathways for organelle activity. Numerous studies have reported short-term and delayed T3 stimulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Convincing data indicate that an early influence occurs through an extra-nuclear mechanism insensitive to
... ensitive to inhibitors of protein synthesis. Although it has been shown that diiodothyronines could actually be T3 mediators of this short-term influence, the detection of specific T3-binding sites, probably corresponding to a 28 kDa c-Erb A 1 protein of the inner membrane, also supports a direct T3 influence. The more delayed influence of thyroid hormone upon mitochondrial respiration probably results from mechanisms elicited at the nuclear level, including changes in phospholipid turnover and stimulation of uncoupling protein expression, leading to an increased inner membrane proton leak. However, the involvement of a direct mitochondrial T3 pathway leading to a rapid stimulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis has to be considered.