IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF FOUR ETHIOPIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS
In vitro experiments were conducted to determine anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Croton macrostachyus, Ekebergia capensis, Acacia nilotica and Terminalia schimperiana on eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of C. macrostachyus and E. capensis as well as aqueous extract of A. nilotica induced complete egg hatch inhibition at concentration less than or equal to 2 mg/ml. Based on their ED 50 , the three most potent plant
... were aqueous extract of E. capensis (0.06mg/ml), aqueous extract of C. macrostachyus (0.1mg/ml) and hydro-alcoholic extract of C. Macrostachyus (0.32mg/ml) in decreasing order of potency. Hydro-alcoholic extract of A. nilotica and T. schimperiana inhibited hatching of eggs of H. contortus significantly at some concentrations tested but not in dose dependent manner. Aqueous extract of T. schimperiana induced no significant inhibition of egg hatching at all concentrations tested (p>0.05). Both aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. macrostachyus and E. capensis produced significant (p<0.05) dose dependent mortality of adult H. contortus, however the activity of hydro-alcoholic extract was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of aqueous extract at all concentrations tested. Both aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of A. nilotica and T. schimperiana have shown no statistically significant (p>0.05) effect on survival of adult parasites at the concentrations tested, and a few mortality cases recorded were not dose dependent. The overall findings of the study revealed that extracts from C. macrostachyus and E. capensis have potential anthelmintic effect and further in vitro and in vivo evaluation is warranted to make use of these plants.