An instruction-level energy model for embedded VLIW architectures

M. Sami, D. Sciuto, C. Silvano, V. Zaccaria
2002 IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems  
In this paper, an instruction-level energy model is proposed for the data-path of very long instruction word (VLIW) pipelined processors that can be used to provide accurate power consumption information during either an instruction-level simulation or power-oriented scheduling at compile time. The analytical model takes into account several software-level parameters (such as instruction ordering, pipeline stall probability, and instruction cache miss probability) as well as
more » ... microarchitectural-level ones (such as pipeline stage power consumption per instruction) providing an efficient pipeline-aware instruction-level power estimation, whose accuracy is very close to those given by RT or gate-level simulations. The problem of instruction-level power characterization of a -issue VLIW processor is ( 2 ) where is the number of operations in the ISA and is the number of parallel instructions composing the very long instruction. One of the advantages of the proposed model consists of reducing the complexity of the characterization problem to ( 2 ). The proposed model has been used to characterize a four-issue VLIW core with a six-stage pipeline, and its accuracy and efficiency has been compared with respect to energy estimates derived by gate-level simulation. Experimental results (carried out on a set of embedded DSP benchmarks) have demonstrated an average error in accuracy of 4.8% of the instruction-level estimation engine with respect to the gate-level engine. The average simulation speed-up of the instruction-level power estimation engine with respect to the gate-level engine is of four orders of magnitude approximately.
doi:10.1109/tcad.2002.801105 fatcat:peio7clfmrftdjgkedejuh6rza