Diagnostic Performance of Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase for Tuberculous Pleural Effusion in a Low-Incidence Setting

Matthew Blakiston, Weldon Chiu, Conroy Wong, Susan Morpeth, Susan Taylor, Betty A. Forbes
2018 Journal of Clinical Microbiology  
The challenges associated with diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion have led to the use of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pfADA) as a biomarker for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. This study retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic performance of pfADA, the pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LD)/ADA ratio, and combinations of these two parameters in 1,637 episodes of pleural effusion in the low-tuberculosis (TB)-incidence setting of Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand, from between
more » ... h 2008 and November 2014. The median pfADA in 57 TB pleural effusion episodes (58.1 U/liter) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in 1,580 non-TB pleural effusions (11.4 U/liter). The median LD/ADA ratio in TB pleural effusion (8.2) was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in non-TB pleural effusions (30.5). The pfADA and pleural fluid LD/ADA ratio AUCROC values (that is, receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve analysis with determination of the ROC area under the curve) were 0.93 and 0.94, respectively. The pfADA thresholds of ≥15 and ≥30 U/liter demonstrated sensitivities of 100% (95% confidence internal = 93.7 to 100) and 93.0% (83.3 to 97.2), specificities of 62.7% (60.3 to 65.0) and 87.3% (85.6 to 88.9), positive predictive values (PPVs) of 8.8% (6.9 to 11.2) and 20.9% (16.4 to 26.4), and negative predictive values (NPVs) of 100% (99.6 to 100) and 99.7% (99.3 to 99.9), respectively. LD/ADA ratio thresholds of <25 and <15 demonstrated sensitivities of 100% (93.5 to 100) and 89.1% (78.2 to 94.9), specificities of 61.6% (59.1 to 64.0) and 84.8% (82.9 to 86.5), PPVs of 8.5% (6.6 to 10.9) and 17.3% (13.3 to 22.0), and NPVs of 100% (99.6 to 100) and 99.5% (99.0 to 99.8), respectively. A combination of pfADA ≥ 30 U/liter and an LD/ADA ratio < 15 increased the specificity and PPV to 97.8% (96.9 to 98.4) and 57.3% (46.5 to 67.5) but decreased the sensitivity to 85.5% (73.8 to 92.4). The primary value of pfADA in a low-TB-incidence setting, such as Auckland, is in utilization of its high NPV.
doi:10.1128/jcm.00258-18 pmid:29793967 fatcat:qvizk6aypjbjzpdoz4qpsosrnu