Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection and colonization among patients admitted to intensive care units in Shanghai, China [post]

2019 unpublished
: Clostridium difficile is considered to be the main pathogen responsible for hospitalacquired infections in western countries, but few studies on C. difficile have been carried out in China. This study performed a prospective study to describe the prevalence, molecular epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and Clostridium difficile colonization (CDC) among patients in intensive care units (ICUs), with the aim of providing strategies for
more » ... trategies for efficient CD prevention and control. Methods: Stool samples were collected from adult patients on admission to an 18-bed ICU department, and were anaerobically cultured for C. difficile . The identified isolates were tested for toxin genes, followed by multilocus sequence typing to analyze the genotypes. Patients were divided into CDI, CDC and control groups according to clinical features. The medical records of these groups were collected and further analyzed using logistic regression to investigate the risk factors. Results: Of the 800 patients included in the study, 33 (4.12%) and 25 (3.12%) patients were identified with CDI and CDC, respectively. An association was found between CDI patients and having a fever (OR=13.993) or metabolic disorder (OR=7.972), and treatment with fluoroquinolone (OR=42.696) or a combination of antibiotics (OR=2.856). CDC patients were characterized by longer hospital stays (OR=1.137), an increased number of comorbidities (OR=36.509), respiratory diseases (OR=0.043) and treatment with vancomycin (OR=18.168). However, treatment with metronidazole was simultaneously found to be a protective factor in the two groups (OR=0.042; OR=0.013). Eighteen sequence types (STs) were identified. Among the CDI group, the isolates were predominantly toxin Aand toxin B-positive (A+B+) strains and genotype ST-2 was the epidemic clone. In the CDC group, the dominant strains were A+B+ and ST-81 was the epidemic clone. Conclusions: The prevalence of C. difficile colonization and infection in our ICU patients was relatively high, suggesting the importance of routine screening to detect the acquisition of this pathogen. Future prevention and treatment strategies for C. difficile -related disease should take into consideration the duration of hospital stays, enteral nutrition, underlying comorbidities, as well as the use of combined antibiotics. Moreover, metronidazole could be a protective factor for both CDI and
doi:10.21203/rs.2.13271/v1 fatcat:wrwixzbvarfudcdj6utemxj7fu