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Despite the recent surge in digitization, organizations still struggle with utilizing international virtual teams. Such teams still tend to follow the concept of top-down planning and are, therefore, controlled by some sort of headquarter. In the context of multiplayer games, however, we observe a more self-organized way of establishing teams, which is commonly referred to as pugging: Teams emerge, establish a shared goal, and disband afterwards. They follow the concept of bottom-up autonomy.doi:10.5294/pacla.2017.20.3.9 fatcat:ynvmqko5sjbfheatsrzkdfbcsu