Conjunctions in Malaysian Secondary School English Language Textbooks
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature
The present research aims to investigate the distribution pattern of conjunctions and their ranking in two different corpora, namely the Malaysian school English language Textbook Corpus (Textbook Corpus) and the British National Corpus (BNC). An additional objective of the study was to find out how conjunctions had been presented in the Malaysian school English language textbooks (Forms 1-5). The method applied was qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that coordinating
... ordinating conjunctions were the most frequent conjunctions that occurred in the five textbooks followed by subordinating and correlative conjunctions. The ranking of the different types of conjunctions in the Textbook Corpus was similar to that of the reference corpus, BNC. The results also indicated that the textbooks failed to present conjunctions effectively. The findings are expected to help textbook developers or language teachers in developing or adapting learning materials. The conjunction is an essential part of the English grammar system as it links phrases, clauses and sentences. It may also be used to indicate the relationship between ideas expressed in clauses and ideas expressed in the sentences. Bloor and Bloor (1995) describe the conjunction as a cohesive device that ties clauses or sections of a text to demonstrate meaningful patterns. Conjunctions are classified into three different types, including coordinating, correlative and subordinating conjunctions (Good, 2002) . This is the classification followed in the present study, but other classifications are also available in the literature. For instance, Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999) classify these grammar units into coordinating conjunctions, adverbial subordinators and conjunctive adverbials.