Evolution of autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic surgical systems: a review of the literature

G. P. Moustris, S. C. Hiridis, K. M. Deliparaschos, K. M. Konstantinidis
<span title="2011-08-03">2011</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/hkpmhn2mvzg3vilcvhxm23fueq" style="color: black;">International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery</a> </i> &nbsp;
Autonomous control of surgical robotic platforms may offer enhancements such as higher precision, intelligent manoeuvres, tissuedamage avoidance, etc. Autonomous robotic systems in surgery are largely at the experimental level. However, they have also reached clinical application. Methods A literature review pertaining to commercial medical systems which incorporate autonomous and semi-autonomous features, as well as experimental work involving automation of various surgical procedures, is
more &raquo; ... nted. Results are drawn from major databases, excluding papers not experimentally implemented on real robots. Results Our search yielded several experimental and clinical applications, describing progress in autonomous surgical manoeuvres, ultrasound guidance, optical coherence tomography guidance, cochlear implantation, motion compensation, orthopaedic, neurological and radiosurgery robots. Conclusion Autonomous and semi-autonomous systems are beginning to emerge in various interventions, automating important steps of the operation. These systems are expected to become standard modality and revolutionize the face of surgery. Definitions and classifications The classification of robotic systems depends on the actual point of view one takes. There are multiple classifications of robotic systems applied in medicine, with some being more preferable. A first high-level classification was proposed Research in surgical robots has already produced new designs, breaking the telemanipulation paradigm. For example, mobile mini-robots for in vivo operation have already been described in the literature (124,125), as well as hyper-redundant (snake) robots (126,127), continuum
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