Genetically Modification of Amylolytic Bacterial Consortium with Physical Mutagen (UV) for Bioremediation

Harashit Mandal, Harashit Kumar, Mandal
A genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) are an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. The use of genetic engineering to create organisms specifically designed for bioremediation has great potential. The goal in bioremediation is to stimulate microorganism with nutrients and other chemicals that will enable them to destroy the contaminants. The bioremediation systems in operation today rely on
more » ... ely on microorganisms' native to the contaminated sites, encouraging them to work by supplying them with the optimum levels of nutrients and other chemicals essential for metabolism. However, researchers are currently investigating ways to augment contaminated sites with nonnative microbes-including genetically engineered microorganisms, especially suited to degrading the contaminants of concern at particular sites. Bioremediation uses naturally occurring microorganisms to degrade various types of wastes. Like all living creatures, microbes need nutrients, carbon, and energy to survive and multiply. Such organisms are capable of breaking down chemicals to obtain food and energy, typically degrading them into harmless substances such as carbon dioxide, water, salts and other innocuous products. Microbial bioremediation has proven to be an important remediation technology because it (a) destroys or immobilizes contaminants rather than transfers them from one environmental media to another (b) conserves limited financial resources due to shortened cleanup times and/or lower capital expenditures related to many other remediation technologies. Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds, and the important sources of energy for microorganisms, plants and animals. The rapid growth of various types of chemical industries including the starch industries have resulted in the increased discharge of the effluent in water bodies which contain toxic chemicals and hazardous compounds. Amylolytic enzymes form a large group of enzymes are produced by a great variety of living systems. Properties of enzymes hydrolyzing starch and related saccharides vary and more or less linked to the environmental niche occupied by the producing organisms, which is especially true for microbial amylolytic enzymes. The physical mutagens are fixed radiations of fixed specific wavelength and energy. Ultra violet light is a kind of radiation that can cause genetic mutation. Sometimes the mutant strains of bacteria show better enzymatic activity. So in present study researcher tried to generate mutant bacterial consortium for better amylolytic activity through UV radiation.