The Neurobiological Grounding of Persistent Stuttering: from Structure to Function

Nicole E. Neef, Alfred Anwander, Angela D. Friederici
<span title="2015-07-31">2015</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation provide insights into the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech disfluencies in chronic persistent stuttering. In the present paper, the goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of existing literature, but rather to highlight robust findings. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies which have recently implicated disrupted white matter connectivity in stuttering. A reduction of fractional anisotropy in
more &raquo; ... istent stuttering has been reported at several different loci. Our meta-analysis revealed consistent deficits in the left dorsal stream and in the interhemispheric connections between the sensorimotor cortices. In addition, recent fMRI meta-analyses link stuttering to reduced left fronto-parieto-temporal activation while greater fluency is associated with boosted co-activations of right fronto-parieto-temporal areas. However, the physiological foundation of these irregularities is not accessible with MRI. Complementary, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reveals local excitatory and inhibitory regulation of cortical dynamics. Applied to a speech motor area TMS revealed reduced speech-planning-related neuronal dynamics at the level of the primary motor cortex in stuttering. Together, this review provides a focused view of the neurobiology of stuttering to date, and may guide the rational design of future research. This future needs to account for the perpetual dynamic interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and speech motor circuits that shape fluent speech. Keywords AF arcuate fasciculus ALE activation likelihood estimation DTI diffusion tensor imaging FA fractional anisotropy FDR false discovery rate IFG inferior frontal gyrus IPL inferior parietal lobe M1 primary motor cortex MEP motor evoked potential MFG middle frontal gyrus MTG middle temporal gyrus SLF superior longitudinal fasciculus SMA supplementary motor area SMG supramarginal gyrus SPL superior parietal lobe STG superior temporal gyrus TBSS tract-based spatial statistics TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation VBS Voxel based statistics The neurobiological grounding of persistent chronic stuttering: From structure to function
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.1007/s11910-015-0579-4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmid:26228377</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:etda6lh3qjaalosnpdc6euhqtu</a> </span>
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