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Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common genetic cause of ischemic strokes and a most important model for the study of subcortical vascular dementia. This unrelentlessly progressive disease affects many hundreds of families all over the world but is not well studied in Brazil. This manuscript reviews pathogenetic, clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of CADASIL. The causal mutations are now very welldoi:10.1590/s0004-282x2010000200026 pmid:20464302 fatcat:q2ds4w7675conkgwkov3r2n5ne