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Public blockchains like Ethereum use Merkle trees to verify transactions received from untrusted servers before applying them to the blockchain. We empirically show that the low throughput of such blockchains is due to the I/O bottleneck associated with using Merkle trees for processing transactions. We present RAINBLOCK, a new architecture for public blockchains that increases throughput without affecting security. RAINBLOCK achieves this by tackling the I/O bottleneck on two fronts: first,arXiv:1909.11590v3 fatcat:eufulqbqrjgrrcuescogqfmety