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While Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have achieved remarkable results in a variety of applications, recent studies exposed important shortcomings in their ability to capture the structure of the underlying graph. It has been shown that the expressive power of standard GNNs is bounded by the Weisfeiler-Leman (WL) graph isomorphism test, from which they inherit proven limitations such as the inability to detect and count graph substructures. On the other hand, there is significant empiricalarXiv:2006.09252v3 fatcat:2a3zatznsvdkjkan4fm2zqtute