Quality of metagenomic DNA extracted for molecular identification of microorganisms from CSF samples of patients with suspected cerebrospinal meningitis in northern Nigeria

I.C. Peletiri, E.I. Ikeh, E. Nna, U.P. Ndike, Y.B. Usman, L.D. Durfa, C.N. Okonkwo, R. Murtala, C.R. Nnajide
2021 African journal of clinical and experimental microbiology  
Following an increase in the practice of starting antimicrobial therapy prior to clinical sample collection, the ability to confirm pathogenic microorganisms of bacterial meningitis has decreased by approximately 30%. Culture results may be false negative when fastidious or culture-resistant bacteria are involved or when patient samples are obtained after antimicrobial therapy has started. Molecular diagnosis using PCR can be performed directly on clinical samples after metagenomic DNA (mDNA)
more » ... enomic DNA (mDNA) extraction not requiring live organisms for a positive result. The specific objectives of this study are to perform mDNA extraction directly from cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) using appropriate spin column method, and to determine the quality of the mDNA elute.Methodology: Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from 210 patients with suspected acute cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) in the Federal Capital Territory and some States in Northern Nigeria during the 2017 and 2018 outbreak seasons. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from approximately 200µL of CSF specimens using the Qiagen QIAamp(R) DNA Mini kit specific for bacterial agents only. DNA quality check was performed on all DNA elutes using fluorometric, spectrophotometric and agarose gel electrophoresis methods.Results: Of the 210 CSF samples analyzed microbiologically, Gram reaction was positive in 94 cases (44.8 %) but only 17 (8.1 %) were culture positive for two of the three major bacterial causes of meningitis. One hundred and eighty (85.7%) samples had DNA concentrations ≥ 0.005 ng/µL, 55 (30.6 %) of these had DNA purity (A260/A280) of ≥ 1.7, 103 (57.2%) had purity value between 1.0 - 1.69, 14 (7.8%) had value of 0.57 - 0.99, and 8 (4.4%) failed purity evaluation with value of 0.00 at A260/A280.Conclusion: The essence of mDNA extraction is multipurpose. A multiplex PCR can be performed on the extracted mDNA to interrogate the presence of microbial pathogens of interest using specific primers and probes (when applicable). Quality mDNA from CSF samples will ensure successful qPCR results for rapid and accurate detection of bacterial pathogens in meningitis. This will eliminate the challenges associated with traditional culture methods. Keywords: Meningitis, CSF, DNA Quality Check, Fluorometry
doi:10.4314/ajcem.v22i2.6 fatcat:d6tstb7apvarhnturla3i5ksbu