Current and Emerging Magnetic Resonance-Based Techniques for Breast Cancer

Apekshya Chhetri, Xin Li, Joseph V. Rispoli
2020 Frontiers in Medicine  
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide, and early detection remains a principal factor for improved patient outcomes and reduced mortality. Clinically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are routinely used in determining benign and malignant tumor phenotypes and for monitoring treatment outcomes. Static MRI techniques enable superior structural contrast between adipose and fibroglandular tissues, while dynamic MRI techniques can elucidate functional
more » ... aracteristics of malignant tumors. The preferred clinical procedure-dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-illuminates the hypervascularity of breast tumors through a gadolinium-based contrast agent; however, accumulation of the potentially toxic contrast agent remains a major limitation of the technique, propelling MRI research toward finding an alternative, noninvasive method. Three such techniques are magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical exchange saturation transfer, and non-contrast diffusion weighted imaging. These methods shed light on underlying chemical composition, provide snapshots of tissue metabolism, and more pronouncedly characterize microstructural heterogeneity. This review article outlines the present state of clinical MRI for breast cancer and examines several research techniques that demonstrate capacity for clinical translation. Ultimately, multi-parametric MRI-incorporating one or more of these emerging methods-presently holds the best potential to afford improved specificity and deliver excellent accuracy to clinics for the prediction, detection, and monitoring of breast cancer.
doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.00175 pmid:32478083 pmcid:PMC7235971 fatcat:c4nomtzogzbfxjwt3ivocfl3qm