Middleware: a model for distributed system services

Philip A. Bernstein
1996 Communications of the ACM  
To help solve heterogeneity and distributed computing problems, vendors are offering distributed system services that have standard programming interfaces and protocols. Standard programming interfaces make it easier to port applications to a variety of platforms, giving the customer some vendor-independence. Standard protocols enable programs to interoperate. These distributed system services are called middleware, because they sit "in the middle," layering above the operating system and
more » ... ng system and networking software and below industry-specific applications. This paper classifies different kinds of middleware, describes their properties, and explains their evolution. The goal is to provide a common vocabulary and conceptual model for understanding today's and tomorrow's distributed system software.
doi:10.1145/230798.230809 fatcat:lfimjaantrdoja37lfia5krpiy