A copy of this work was available on the public web and has been preserved in the Wayback Machine. The capture dates from 2013; you can also visit the original URL.
The file type is
To help solve heterogeneity and distributed computing problems, vendors are offering distributed system services that have standard programming interfaces and protocols. Standard programming interfaces make it easier to port applications to a variety of platforms, giving the customer some vendor-independence. Standard protocols enable programs to interoperate. These distributed system services are called middleware, because they sit "in the middle," layering above the operating system anddoi:10.1145/230798.230809 fatcat:lfimjaantrdoja37lfia5krpiy