Evaluation of pre-game hydration status, heat stress, and fluid balance during professional soccer competition in the heat

Luis Fernando Aragón-Vargas, José Moncada-Jiménez, Jessenia Hernández-Elizondo, Alvaro Barrenechea, María Monge-Alvarado
2009 European Journal of Sport Science  
This study evaluated initial hydration status (stadium arrival urine specific gravity), fluid balance (pre-and post-game nude body weight, fluid intake, urine collection), and core temperature changes (pre-game, half-time, post-game) during a professional soccer game. We monitored 17 male players (goalies included) between stadium arrival and game end (3h), playing at 34.9°C and 35.4% relative humidity, for an average Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) heat stress index of 31.9°C. Data are mean
more » ... SD (range). Initial urine specific gravity (USG) was 1.018 ± 0.008 (1.003-1.036); seven players showed USG ≥ 1.020. Over the three hours, body mass (BM) loss was 2.58 ± 0.88kg (1.08-4.17kg), a dehydration of 3.38 ± 1.11%BM (1.68-5.34%BM). Sweat loss was 4448 ± 1216mL (2950-6224mL), vs. fluid intake of 1948 ± 954mL (655-4288mL). Despite methodological problems with many players, core temperatures greater than or equal to 39.0°C were registered in four players by halftime, and in nine by game's end. Many of these players incurred significant dehydration during the game, compounded by initial hypohydration; thermoregulation may have been impaired to an extent we were unable to measure accurately. We suggest some new recommendations for soccer players training and competing in the heat to help them avoid substantial dehydration.
doi:10.1080/17461390902829242 fatcat:q4bgaaokfveula7osylj4f3inu