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Infectious agents are well-known ecological factors inducing/accelerating human autoimmune diseases. Host infection by a pathogen can lead to autoimmunity via multiple mechanisms: molecular mimicry; epitope spreading and presentation of cryptic epitopes of self-antigen owing to lysis of self-tissue by persisting pathogen or immune cells; bystander activation, adjuvant effect of pathogens as a result of non-specific activation of immune system; polyclonal activation of B-cells by chronicdoi:10.24287/1726-1708-2021-20-1-99-113 fatcat:iy6anxqgurcd5ayq5ocnqeloee