1894 The Lancet  
infliction; but, ss I have more than once pointed out in these columns, tourists do not limit their explorations to the neighbourhood of their hotel, and it behoves them to keep themselves informed of the doings of the service des eanx, ignorance of which might cost them dear. I would counsel them to inquire on this point at a good English druggist's before they visit a strange district in Paris. An Artificial Windpipe. M. Pean presented to his colleagues of the Academy of Medicine on the lst
more » ... st. a woman whose thyroid gland he had removed in 1890 for simple hypertrophy. The tumour, smfortunately, reappeared soon afterwards in a malignant form, .and its ablation sixteen months ago necessitated the removal of the cricoid cartilage and the five upper rings of the trachea. Recovery has since been maintained, but .the extent of the tracheo-laryngeal wound has not allowed of the recovery of phonation. An artificial windpipe, con-Gtructed by M. Kraus, is now worn by the patient, who can speak sufficiently distinctly to make herself understood. 17ie Cause of the Mal de Montagne experimentally determined. M. Regnard reminds us that it is proposed to bore a tunnel or chimney extending from the base to the summit of the Jungfrau. In this chimney, whose height will be 4000 metres, it is intended to instal a lift destined to convey passengers to the top of the mountain ; but sinister warnings of the dreaded mal de montagne, which, it is said, will surely make the tourist repent his temerity, have brought the pmject to a standstill. Struck by the fact that this malaise affects mountain climbers at an elevation of about 3000 metres, while aeronauts only suffer when they have reached double that height, M. Regnard concludes that the difference is explained by the factor, muscular fatigue, which is present in the first and absent in the second case. In order to solve the problem he places under a bell jar two guinea-pigs equally developed, of whom one has to work a wheel (the climber) while the other is at rest (the aeronaut.) The air of the bell jar is then progressively exhausted so as to reproduce the atmospheric conditions obtaining at different heights. At a pressure equivalent to 3000 metres the climbing guinea-pig showed signs of distress, and at 4800 metres he renounced the straggle and remained lying on his back. The aeronautic guinea-pig, on the other hand, appeared quite comfortable up to an elevation of 6000 metres, and his condition became serious only at a height of 8000 metres. This experiment appears to prove that, although some of the symptoms of the mal de montagne are doubtless due to the rarefaction of the air, the chief determining cause is fatigue and the resulting exaggerated consumption of oxygen. M. Regnard opines that tourists who venture on the Jungfrau lift expedition will feachthe top in good condition. Should this prognostication be true it constitutes one more proof of the usefulness to speculators of the much maligned experiments conducted in the physiological laboratory. Rabid anti-vivisectionists cannot now, however, logically avail themselves of the abovementioned mode of transit to the top of the Jungfrau. May 8th. NEW ZEALAND. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) Otago Medical S'chool.
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(01)68997-9 fatcat:dsu4pt3xjzg3jezmmjyu3gibyu