Experience with Diagnostic Laparoscopy in the Evaluation of Tubal Factor Infertility
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Context and Objectives: Tubal factor infertility accounts for a large portion of female factor infertility. Tubal disease is responsible for 25% -35% of female infertility. The most prevalent cause of tubal factor infertility is pelvic inflammatory disease and acute salpingitis. The incidence of tubal damage after one episode of pelvic infection is approximately 12%, 23% after two episodes and 54% after three episodes. Various modalities for investigating tubal factor infertility exist
... lity exist including: saline Infusion sonography (SIS), Hystero-contrast sonography (HyCoSy), hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy with chromopertubation, the latter being the gold standard. The aim of this study was to determine the role of diagnostic laparoscopy in the evaluation of tubal factor in infertile women. Settings and Design: A retrospective descriptive study on all diagnostic laparoscopic procedures carried out to evaluate tubal factor infertility in the endoscopic gynecology unit of a tertiary-level hospital from 2010 to 2019. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of a tertiary-level hospital in Ghana. A total of three hundred and ninety-one (391) records of all diagnostic laparoscopy procedures performed because of infertility in the endoscopic gynecology unit of a tertiary-level hospital between 2010 and 2019 were analyzed. Clients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy to assess tubal factor infertility in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Directorate of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, from 2010 to 2019 were included in the study. Tubal patency was tested by laparoscopy and chromopertubation using methylene blue dye. The clinical characteristics of these women (age, parity, type of infertility), the intra-operative findings and complications were evaluated. Data on age, parity, type of infertility and intra operative findings were extracted using a proforma. Cases in which the bio-data or other clinical and laparoscopic findings were missing were excluded from the study. Ethical approval for the study was obtained A simple percentage method was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 391 women underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for investigation of tubal factor infertility between 2010 and 2019. The women's mean age was 33.16 years. The youngest patient was 20 years and the oldest was 46 years. 232 (59.3%) patients were in primary infertility group while 159 (40.7%) patients were in secondary infertility group. 265 (66.8%) of the women were in the age group 20 -35 years. The main laparoscopic findings for tubal factor were: 57.28% with bilateral tubal occlusion, 16.39% with unilateral tubal occlusion and 7.92% with hydrosalpinx. 18.41% had bilateral tubal patency. Other findings were identified during the laparoscopic procedure. For peritoneal abnormalities, 200 (51.15%) had normal findings, 184 (47.06%) had adhesions and 7 (1.79%) had peritoneal endometriosis. For uterine factor, 185 (47.31%) had normal uterus with no fibroids or adenomyosis, 202 (51.67%) had uterine fibroids, 2 (0.51%) had uterine anomaly and 2 (0.51%) had adenomyosis. For ovarian pathology, 13 (3.32%) had simple cyst, 2 (0.51%) had endometrioma, 184 (47.07%) had the ovaries involved in adhesions. 192 (49.10%) of patients had normal looking ovaries. There was no mortality or conversion to open laparotomy in this series. Conclusions: Unilateral and bilateral tubal blockade was detected in 73.67% of cases of infertile women. Diagnostic laparoscopy is a safe procedure.