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In one strand of research, analysts examine trends in and the determinants of energy usage and intensity. In a second strand, researchers analyze the impact of trade flows on environmental outcomes. Recently, Cole (2006) bridges this gap, analyzing the impact of trade intensity on energy usage utilizing panel data at the country level. Here, we analyze the impact of subnational trade flows across U.S. states on state-level energy usage and intensity, controlling for the endogeneity of tradedoi:10.1080/13504851.2013.806773 fatcat:xesqe2hwb5fi7aleyx35chlpha