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End-wall effects in granular tumblers: From quasi-two-dimensional flow to three-dimensional flow
Physical Review E
The flow of granular material in rotating tumblers is confined to a thin flowing layer at the free surface in which the particle velocity is primarily streamwise, perpendicular to the axis of rotation, with minimal axial motion. Particle tracking velocimetry was used to measure the surface velocity for 1 and 2 mm glass particles and sand in cylindrical tumblers of various diameters, lengths, and rotation rates for a flat continuously flowing surface. End-wall friction slows the streamwisedoi:10.1103/physreve.74.031305 pmid:17025621 fatcat:w5akfgochzdfnoelacw6uduacq