Análise de processos de cenarização na geração hidroenergética
The medium and long-term planning of the Brazilian electric system consists of a complex problem with many uncertainties and variables, where, among these the inflows to the reservoirs highlight. These inflows need to be estimated in order to characterize the future availability of electricity in a planning horizon. Among the existing approaches to estimate these inflows, highlights the stochastic approach, which consider these variables according to their probability distribution, and aims to
... onsider the most likely universe of manifestations. The stochastic approach can be developed through stochastic models, which are often characterized by scenarios trees that represent the possible universe. However, due to the high dimensionality that stochastic analyses can result when considering very large trees, it becomes necessary to use complementary tools, aimed at reducing the number of scenarios. Based on this context, this dissertation discusses in general the process of stochastic optimization of the hydroelectric generation planning, considering scenarios trees and scenario reduction tools, through the optimization modeling developed in the DSS HIDROTERM, developed in GAMS language. As a case study, it was generated and adapted stochastic optimization algorithms that consider trees with large number of scenarios, generated by autoregressive stochastic models PAR. Based on these trees it was applied the scenario reduction tool SCENRED, developed in GAMS language. The sensitivity analyzes developed intended to: validate the stochastic optimization process; analyze the effects of using different reduced scenarios trees of inflows; analyze the impacts of considering different planning horizons, analyze the hydrological influence on the main results of the optimization process, and the benefits and disadvantages of this process in the hydroelectric operation planning. The results indicate that the stochastic optimization process is effective to consider the randomness involved in the prediction of inflow to the reservoirs. These results have also confirmed some well-known trends in the stochastic optimization process, such as the fact that the larger the tree scenarios, more accurate and stable tend the results but also greater the processing time required. In this context, the use of the reduction tool SCENRED allowed significant reductions in the size of scenarios tree, without causing losses in quality and solution stability, enabling the application of the stochastic optimization algorithm proposed.