Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Osseointegration is a surgical approach that permitted the direct attachment of an external prosthesis to the skeleton in some select patients with amputation, who had failed to tolerate conventional sockets, thereby obviating related issues such as discomfort, skin breakdown, and poor fit. In this specific population, osseointegration offers the potential for enhanced biomechanical advantage and rehabilitative potential. Multiple percutaneous implant systems exist for clinical use
... al use internationally, each attempting to create a stable bone-implant interface while avoiding complications such as infection and loosening. Prospective clinical trials are now underway in the United States. This article will review the history and biology of osseointegration, indications and contraindications for use of currently available implant systems, and reported outcomes. Future directions of orthopaedic osseointegration technology, including electronic systems capable of biomimetic bidirectional volitional motor control of, and sensory/proprioceptive feedback from, external prosthetic devices, will also be discussed.