Northern Arizona Vowels
Publication of the American Dialect Society
Previous work on BOOT and BOAT in Northern Arizona English (Hall-Lew 2004 , 2005 found that younger townspeople and older ranchers both front BOOT, arguably due to dialect contact between the so-called Southern Shift (Labov 1994) and the so-called California Vowel Shift (Eckert 2004) . Subsequent analysis on a subsample of Northern Arizona men (Hall-Lew et al. 2015b) found that townspeople produced a backer BAT vowel than ranchers, again hinting at a possibly Californian pattern in the town and
... ern in the town and a possibly Southern pattern for the ranchers. This paper builds on these findings, examining the whole front vowel system as well as the low back vowels in two different corpora collected between 2002-2006. The results of mixedeffect models based on normalized single point F1 and F2 Hz values find some evidence of other changes associated previously with California: BIT and BET lowering and backing and a 'nasal split' for the BAT vowel (Eckert 2004. However, data are inconclusive for BOT and BOUGHT as well as for the town/ranch contrast. One new finding that emerges in this analysis is a year of birth correlation among women for the raising of the BAIT vowel, which does not appear among the men.