A genotyping study of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 drug resistance in a small Brazilian municipality
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
In Brazil, surveillance studies on antiretroviral drug resistance among drug-naïve and treatment-experienced patients have focused primarily on patients living in large urban centers. As the epidemic spreads towards small municipalities and the innermost parts of the country, it will be essential to monitor the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in these areas. We report the first survey on the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in a small Brazilian municipality. Between
... pality. Between July 1999 and March 2005, 72 adult human immunodeficiency virus type-1(HIV-1)-infected patients received care at the Municipal HIV/AIDS Program of the small, southeastern municipality of Miracema, state of Rio de Janeiro. A genotyping study of antiretroviral drug resistance was performed in 54 patients. Among 27 samples from treatment-experienced patients, 9 (33.3%) harbored strains with reduced drug susceptibility. Among these, 6 had reduced susceptibility to reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors and 3 to both RT and protease inhibitors. No primary antiretroviral drug resistance was recorded among 27 drug-naïve subjects. The relatively low prevalence of resistance mutations in the Miracema cohort argues against the concern that resource-poor settings should not implement widespread accessibility to standard of care antiretroviral combinations due to the possibility of sub-optimal adherence leading to the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains.