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Disappointing results of international monitoring studies such as TIMSS (Third International Mathematics and Science Study) and PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) have fuelled another general debate on the need for a sufficient level of scientific literacy and the necessity to improve the quality of science instruction in school. Science education research has played essential roles not only in analyzing the actual state of scientific literacy and the actual practice indoi:10.12973/ejmste/75369 fatcat:jtvak4ylw5hcvk4wwgitvtcptq