In vitro models for assessing the potential cardiovascular disease risk associated with cigarette smoking

Ian M. Fearon, Marianna D. Gaça, Brian K. Nordskog
2013 Toxicology in Vitro  
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a prevalent human disorder and a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality. A number of risk factors may predispose an individual to developing atherosclerosis, and of these factors, cigarette smoking is strongly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Current thinking suggests that exposure to toxicants found in cigarette smoke may be responsible for this elevated disease likelihood, and this gives rise to the idea that
more » ... tions in the levels of some smoke toxicants may reduce the harm associated with cigarette smoking. To assess the disease risk of individuals who smoke cigarettes with altered toxicant levels, a weight-of-evidence approach is required examining both exposure and disease-related endpoints. A key element of such an assessment framework are data derived from the use of in vitro models of cardiovascular disease, which when considered alongside other forms of data (e.g. from clinical studies) may support evidence of potential reduced risk. Importantly, such models may also be used to provide mechanistic insight into the effects of smoking and of smoke toxicant exposure in cardiovascular disease development. In this review the use of in vitro models of cardiovascular disease and one of the contributory factors, oxidative stress, is discussed in the context of assessing the risk potential of both conventional and modified cigarettes. Practical issues concerning the use of these models for cardiovascular disease understanding and risk assessment are highlighted and areas of development necessary to enhance the power and predictive capacity of in vitro disease models in risk assessment are discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2012.08.018 pmid:22951947 fatcat:76hpvgh5pfatnbveldjtbqsh7a