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Early schistosomiasis poses a serious diagnostic challenge, because current standard diagnostic techniques based on serology and egg microscopy lack sensitivity at the initial presentation. We report spinal cord neuroschistosomiasis in a traveller developing 6 weeks after exposure. The diagnosis was confirmed by Schistosoma mansoni-targeted real-time PCR in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, before the results of conventional methods became positive. Molecular assays represent a paradigm shift fordoi:10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.018 fatcat:ayku45jch5gp3jtu3gsbzsumpa