In situ remediation of contaminated marinesediment: an overview
Environmental science and pollution research international
Sediment tends to accumulate inorganic and persistent hydrophobic organic contaminants representing one of the main sinks and sources of pollution. Generally, contaminated sediment poses medium-and long-term risks to humans and ecosystem health; dredging activities or natural resuspension phenomena (i.e., strongly adverse weather conditions) can remobilize pollution releasing it into the water column. Thus, ex situ traditional remediation activities (i.e., dredging) can be hazardous compared to
... in situ techniques that try to keep to a minimum sediment mobilization, unless dredging is compulsory to reach a desired bathymetric level. We reviewed in situ physico-chemical (i.e., active mixing and thin capping, solidification/stabilization, chemical oxidation, dechlorination, electrokinetic separation, and sediment flushing) and bio-assisted treatments, including hybrid solutions (i.e., nanocomposite reactive capping, bioreactive capping, microbial electrochemical technologies). We found that significant gaps still remain into the knowledge about the application of in situ contaminated sediment remediation techniques from the technical and the practical viewpoint. Only activated carbon-based technologies are well developed and currently applied with several available case studies. The environmental implication of in situ remediation technologies was only shortly investigated on a long-term basis after its application, so it is not clear how they can really perform.