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G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical nucleic acid secondary structures formed by guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the biological roles of G4s in microbial genomes with emphasis on recent discoveries. G4s are enriched and conserved in the regulatory regions of microbes, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Importantly, G4s in hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomes modulate genes crucial for virus replication. Recentdoi:10.1016/j.tim.2018.08.011 pmid:30224157 pmcid:PMC7127049 fatcat:idh4z5ii5nhifjatepp4llvl3y