Morphology ofElimia livescens(Mollusca: Pleuroceridae) in Indiana, U.S.A. Covaries with Environmental Variation

Ashley Dunithan, Stephen Jacquemin, Mark Pyron
2012 American Malacological Bulletin  
We examined covariation of morphology with local and regional environmental variables in the widespread North American freshwater gastropod Elimia livescens (Menke, 1830). Geometric morphometrics was used to quantify shape of individuals collected at sites in Indiana, U.S.A. We used the Procrustes superimposition method and relative warp analysis to examine variation among individuals. We found that shape of E. livescens covaried signifi cantly with fl owing versus non-fl owing habitats,
more » ... ng habitats, drainage area, latitude and longitude, water temperature, conductivity, substrate type, and the presence of woody debris. Individuals with smaller apertures and streamlined shape occurred in smaller watersheds in the southeastern regions of Indiana, and in local habitats with low water fl ow, low conductivity, large, coarse substrate (rip-rap), low frequency of woody debris, and higher dissolved oxygen. We suggest that morphological variation is an integral part in maintaining a wide distribution and maximizing local success for an aquatic gastropod that occurs in a variety of environments.
doi:10.4003/006.030.0110 fatcat:4itb75q2hrdxhbr6jyldlmp2va