TYPOLOGICAL ASPECTS CONTRIBUTION INTO BIORHYTHMS STUDY
IMPATTO DELL'INNOVAZIONE SULLA SCIENZA: ASPETTI FONDAMENTALI E APPLICATI - TOMO 1
Ukrainian Medical stomatological academy, Physiology chair Valentina Sokolenko cand.biol.sci, associate professor Ukrainian Medical stomatological academy, Physiology chair UKRAINE Chronobiology as an independent Science has formed in the XXth century second half  . Circadian rhythms concept belongs to the most developed. It is considered that practical applications areas comprise particularly: labor physiology, ergonomics (labor and rest regimes optimal organization especially for the
... ially for the shiftwork and night work), medicine (especially therapy of dys-somnias, emotional disorders, chronopharmacology), agriculture (animals and plants productiveness increase). There is a whole circadian timing system representing maintaining and mutual conjugating the organism circadian rhythms. It includes oscillators, conductive systems and specific receptors. Oscillators are organized hierarchically: the higher floor pace-makers have generating autonomic oscillations with a period lasting near 24 hours and imposing or entrainment of the rhythms of oscillators located below. Conductive pathways determine entrainment, they can be nervous (for example, mono-synaptic retinal-hypothalamic pathway in mammals) and humoral (hormones, for instance, melatonin). Receptors belong to the photoreceptors mainly though lower Vertebrates have the extra-retinal ones. These receptors percept time pace-makers signals and serve for organism circadian rhythms coupling to environment 24-houred rhythms. Circadian rhythms (from "circa" -"near", "dies" -"day")near-24-houred biological rhythms with a period approximately equal to 24 hours. Such rhythms are characteristic for all eukaryotic organisms (and even some prokaryotic) and are realized practically in all life expressions. Their backgrounds represent endogenous oscillations supported at cellular level. They provide entrainment by or synchronicity to astronomic time and determine daily program of metabolism and behavior.