Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neural recording in the human brain: validation of depth electrode placement through high-resolution imaging and electrophysiology

Robert T. Wicks, Mark R. Witcher, Daniel E. Couture, Adrian W. Laxton, Gautam Popli, Christopher T. Whitlow, Dustin Fetterhoff, Alexander S. Dakos, Brent M. Roeder, Sam A. Deadwyler, Robert E. Hampson
2020 Neurosurgical Focus  
OBJECTIVEIntracranial human brain recordings typically utilize recording systems that do not distinguish individual neuron action potentials. In such cases, individual neurons are not identified by location within functional circuits. In this paper, verified localization of singly recorded hippocampal neurons within the CA3 and CA1 cell fields is demonstrated.METHODSMacro-micro depth electrodes were implanted in 23 human patients undergoing invasive monitoring for identification of epileptic
more » ... ion of epileptic seizure foci. Individual neurons were isolated and identified via extracellular action potential waveforms recorded via macro-micro depth electrodes localized within the hippocampus. A morphometric survey was performed using 3T MRI scans of hippocampi from the 23 implanted patients, as well as 46 normal (i.e., nonepileptic) patients and 26 patients with a history of epilepsy but no history of depth electrode placement, which provided average dimensions of the hippocampus along typical implantation tracks. Localization within CA3 and CA1 cell fields was tentatively assigned on the basis of recording electrode site, stereotactic positioning of the depth electrode in comparison with the morphometric survey, and postsurgical MRI. Cells were selected as candidate CA3 and CA1 principal neurons on the basis of waveform and firing rate characteristics and confirmed within the CA3-to-CA1 neural projection pathways via measures of functional connectivity.RESULTSCross-correlation analysis confirmed that nearly 80% of putative CA3-to-CA1 cell pairs exhibited positive correlations compatible with feed-forward connection between the cells, while only 2.6% exhibited feedback (inverse) connectivity. Even though synchronous and long-latency correlations were excluded, feed-forward correlation between CA3-CA1 pairs was identified in 1071 (26%) of 4070 total pairs, which favorably compares to reports of 20%–25% feed-forward CA3-CA1 correlation noted in published animal studies.CONCLUSIONSThis study demonstrates the ability to record neurons in vivo from specified regions and subfields of the human brain. As brain-machine interface and neural prosthetic research continues to expand, it is necessary to be able to identify recording and stimulation sites within neural circuits of interest.
doi:10.3171/2020.4.focus20164 pmid:32610296 fatcat:qaw2l4c22ne27cdybiiy7cdydq