Muscle Architecture of the Elongated Nose in the Asian Elephant(Elephas maximus)

Hideki ENDO, Yoshihiro HAYASHI, Teruyuki KOMIYA, Etsuo NARUSHIMA, Motoki SASAKI
2001 Journal of Veterinary Medical Science  
The architecture of the M. caninus in the elongated nose was examined in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The following complicated musculature of the M. caninus was observed in the proximal and distal regions of the nose: (1) Proximal region: In the superficial layer, the longitudinal bundles are confirmed in the dorsal part, and the obliquely-oriented ones in the ventral part. In the middle layer, some bundles run ventro-distally, while other ones represent longitudinally-oriented
more » ... . The deep layer consists of complicated architecture of many bundles. Some muscle bundles run medio-laterally, while the others extend proximo-distally in this space. (2) Distal region: In the dorsal part of the M. caninus, the bundles run at deep-superficial direction, while in the ventral part the bundles are longitudinally arranged. The bundles run at lateral direction near the septum of the nasal conduits. The N. facialis and N. infraorbitalis send many branches in the lateral area of the M. caninus in the trunk. This muscle architecture of multi-oriented bundles and well-developed innervation to them suggest that they enable the elongated nose to act as a refined manipulator in the Asian elephant.
doi:10.1292/jvms.63.533 pmid:11411499 fatcat:c4wcvtamybbzrbesd5xoanafaq