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The role of metal apertures in the mechanism of lateral-mode confinement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is clarified by means of a detailed effective-frequencymethod (EFM) analysis of an oxide-confined VCSEL structure with the oxide window larger than the p-contact metal aperture. We show that a ring metal contact on top of the VCSEL structure can change the conditions for lateral waveguiding by significantly modifying the local resonant properties of the VCSEL cavity.doi:10.1109/jlt.2005.858210 fatcat:mtx2cbxenjhbjdmr3dhvr5ejrm