Analysis of lateral-mode confinement in VCSELs with ring metal apertures

G.A. Smolyakov, M. Osinski
2005 Journal of Lightwave Technology  
The role of metal apertures in the mechanism of lateral-mode confinement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is clarified by means of a detailed effective-frequencymethod (EFM) analysis of an oxide-confined VCSEL structure with the oxide window larger than the p-contact metal aperture. We show that a ring metal contact on top of the VCSEL structure can change the conditions for lateral waveguiding by significantly modifying the local resonant properties of the VCSEL cavity.
more » ... VCSEL cavity. Resonant effects are demonstrated in the longitudinal coupled-cavity system consisting of the designed laser cavity, determined by two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and a spacer, and a very short cavity formed by the top DBR and the semiconductor-metal interface. The conditions for suppression of higher order lateral modes using metal apertures are established. Index Terms-Effective frequency method (EFM), numerical simulation, oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), semiconductor-device modeling, semiconductor lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.
doi:10.1109/jlt.2005.858210 fatcat:mtx2cbxenjhbjdmr3dhvr5ejrm