First-order logic with self-reference [article]

Reijo Jaakkola, Antti Kuusisto
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We consider an extension of first-order logic with a recursion operator that corresponds to allowing formulas to refer to themselves. We investigate the obtained language under two different systems of semantics, thereby obtaining two closely related but different logics. We provide a natural deduction system that is complete for validities for both of these logics, and we also investigate a range of related basic decision problems. For example, the validity problems of the two-variable
more » ... s of the logics are shown coNexpTime-complete, which is in stark contrast with the high undecidability of two-variable logic extended with least fixed points. We also argue for the naturalness and benefits of the investigated approach to recursion and self-reference by, for example, relating the new logics to Lindstrom's Second Theorem.
arXiv:2207.07397v1 fatcat:rxfau7u7sffcbm4mxtwlmlyche