The establishment of the Institute of rights and freedoms (the ancient world)

Yurevich Dmitriy, Tumanov, Rinat Sakhapov
2016 unpublished
The priority and importance of human rights and freedoms in the modern world are undeniable. The rights and freedoms of citizens together with their responsibilities in a democratic state constitute the most important social, political and legal institute serving as a criterion of social maturity and civility. Human rights are extraterritorial and extra-national. In solving the problems, the authors relied on the universally recognized principles of social, political and legal phenomena and the
more » ... l phenomena and the relevant processes characterizing them, such as dialectical process. Our research work involved the methods of perceiving the legal reality, as well as chronological, formal and legal, comparative and legal, system-structural methods, etc. People's view of social justice and universality of rights occurs in the earliest stages of formation of the state organization of public management. Thus, in XXIV BC a king of Sumer established "freedom" for his subjects through the use of sanctions against unscrupulous tax collectors, to protect widows and orphans from the unjust actions of power-wielding people, and to suppress the enslavement of the temple servants by the chief priests. A step forward in the formation of ideas about human rights and their consolidation took place in the Ancient World: Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Of course, the assessment of the social properties of the individual, its rights and freedoms in the ancient world, having become a model of the slave system, was class-constrained. Slaves, as talking tools, could not be the owners of the rights. However, the practical implementation of human rights and freedoms in the majority of world countries, in fact, started only in the XX century. This was largely promoted by the social revolution that took place under the slogan of liberty, independence and social and legal equality.