Unexpected results in a randomized dietary trial to reduce phthalate and bisphenol A exposures

Sheela Sathyanarayana, Garry Alcedo, Brian E Saelens, Chuan Zhou, Russell L Dills, Jianbo Yu, Bruce Lanphear
2013 Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology  
Contaminated diet contributes to phthalate and bispenol A exposure PBDEs may increase risk for Parkinson's disease Father's obesity could have epigenetic effects SOD1 can repress respiration Contaminated diet contributes to phthalate and bispenol A exposure An NIEHS-funded researcher and colleagues report that an intervention designed to minimize exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates actually led to increases in phthalate concentrations. The study found that people may be exposed to BPA
more » ... be exposed to BPA and phthalates in their diets, even when they eat organic food that is prepared, cooked, and stored in non-plastic containers. The researchers conducted a randomized trial with 10 families. Half of the families receiving a catered diet of local, fresh organic food that was not prepared, cooked, or stored in plastic containers. The other families received written recommendations to reduce phthalate and BPA exposures. The people who received the meal replacement showed an unexpected increase in urinary di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations, rising from a median of 283.7 nanomoles per gram at baseline to 7,027.5 nanomoles per gram during the intervention (P<0.0001). The families who received the written material had no significant changes in phthalate concentrations during this time period. The investigators also saw a statistically significant increase in total BPA concentration between baseline and intervention periods for the families receiving meal replacements, but not in the other families. To identify the source of the exposure, they tested the food ingredients used in the meal replacements and found DEHP concentrations of 21,400 nanograms per gram in ground coriander and 673 nanograms per gram in milk. The researchers conclude that without regulation to reduce phthalate and BPA concentrations in food production, it may be difficult to develop effective and feasible interventions for the general population. Citation: Sathyanarayana S, Alcedo G, Saelens BE, Zhou C, Dills RL, Yu J, Lanphear B. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub med/23443238) 2013. Unexpected results in a randomized dietary trial to reduce phthalate and bisphenol A exposures. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol; Findings from an NIEHS-funded study point to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as a possible risk factor for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. PBDEs are used as flame retardants and are chemically similar to PCBs, which studies have suggested can increase risk for Parkinson's disease. To see if PBDEs are also neurotoxic, the researchers evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of PBDE mixture DE-71. Previous research showed that vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) mediates dopamine neuron vulnerability and can be inhibited by PBDEs. Thus, they were particularly interested in studying how deficits in VMAT2 expression and function might influence the neurotoxicity of DE-71. The investigators found that DE-71 caused cell death in a dopamine-secreting cell line and also lowered the number of dopamine-secreting neurons isolated from mice that expressed normal amounts of VMAT2, as well as from mice that expressed approximately 5 percent of normal VMAT2 levels. Mice exposed to DE-71 had significant deposits of PBDE congeners in their brains, reductions in locomotor activity, and less dopamine in the area of the brain associated with Parkinson's disease. These changes were worse in animals deficient in VMAT2. The researchers conclude that their findings warrant additional laboratory and epidemiological research on PBDEs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders. Citation: Bradner JM, Suragh TA, Wilson WW, Lazo CR, Stout KA, Kim HM, Wang MZ, Walker DI, Pennell KD, Richardson JR, Miller GW, Caudle WM. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23287494) 2013. Exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 damages the nigrostriatal dopamine system: Role of dopamine handling in neurotoxicity. Exp Neurol 241:138-147. Father's obesity could have epigenetic effects A study partially supported by NIEHS found that newborns with obese fathers had significantly less DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene. Since reduced DNA methylation of this gene is associated with a higher risk of
doi:10.1038/jes.2013.9 pmid:23443238 fatcat:i7jshdey7zcybif5qzo2l2cile