Anorexia-cachexia syndrome in cancer patients: pathogenetic aspects and treatment options
Background. Modern standards for the treatment of both solid tumors and tumors of the blood system provide a mandatory assessment of the objective status of the patient. One of the important criteria of which is nutritional status. Underestimating the role of nutritional support in the treatment of cancer patients leads to a deterioration of treatment results due to the progressive deterioration of nutritional status and the development of cancer anorexia cachexia syndrome (CACS), which is an
... ACS), which is an independent adverse factor leading to the death of the patient. The increase in the number of cancer patients with risk factors for CACS development requires not only close attention of clinicians to this problem, but also the development of clear recommendations for the diagnosis and management of such patients. This can contribute to solving several problems at once. First, it will allow optimizing monitoring of cancer patients predisposed to CACS development during anticancer treatment. Secondly, it will provide an opportunity to develop a diagnostic algorithm to prevent it. Third, the use of the identified criteria for predicting and outcome of complications both on an outpatient basis and in a hospital will be aimed at creating favorable conditions for anticancer therapy and thereby improving long-term treatment results and patients quality of life. Studying the mechanisms of development of CACS, the possibilities of correcting this condition, indicate the need for a multimodal concept and the rejection of the search for a "magic pill". The results of a multicenter, prospective randomized study conducted in the oncology and hematology departments of healthcare institutions.Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of FortiCare oral nutritional support in cancer patients under the real clinical practice.Materials and methods. The study included 96 patients with stage II–IV tumors. Radiation therapy was received by 28 patients, chemotherapy ‒ by 68 patients. Patient information was collected using an individual registration card. The patients were randomized according to nutritional support tactics (1:1). In the study group, with radiation (n = 14) and chemotherapy (n = 34), patients received enteral nutrition Forticare orally 125 ml 3 times a day in parallel with their usual diet. Patients in the control group during radiation therapy (n = 14) received the required amount of calories from their usual diet. During chemotherapy, patients in the control group (n = 34) with a lack of daily calorie intake received additional parenteral nutrition.Results and conclusion. While taking FortiCare, there was a smaller loss of body weight (p ≤0.05), a frequency of mucositis of the oral cavity, and esophagitis (p >0.05). With chemotherapy, the incidence of diarrhea (p <0.001) and constipation (p <0.05) was detected less frequently than in the control group. A decrease in the frequency of hematological toxicity (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia) was noted (p >0.05).