Identifying the Origins of Microstructural Defects Such as Cracking within Ni‐Rich NMC811 Cathode Particles for Lithium‐Ion Batteries

Thomas M. M. Heenan, Aaron Wade, Chun Tan, Julia E. Parker, Dorota Matras, Andrew S. Leach, James B. Robinson, Alice Llewellyn, Alexander Dimitrijevic, Rhodri Jervis, Paul D. Quinn, Dan J. L. Brett (+1 others)
2020 Advanced Energy Materials  
durable to fast-charging and capable of high capacities for long-range operation are required. BEV range is largely limited by the individual lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell energies, which in turn is dictated by the electrode chemistry and operating conditions, for example: the choice of anode and cathode, charging rate, and upper cut-off voltage. In commercial applications, the anode is often sized in accordance to the achievable capacity of the cathode, plus an appropriate safety buffer, and
more » ... uently, in many situations, the cathode dictates the cell capacity, and thus BEV range, [1] and the cell is said to be "cathode limited." A variety of layered transition metal oxide materials have been developed to operate as the cathode for Li-ion cells. For instance, the discovery of LiCoO 2 (LCO) in 1980 revolutionized the portable electronics industry; [2] however, because the Co 3+/4+ energy band overlaps with the O 2− , LCO suffers low practical capacities due to instabilities at higher voltages that can trigger oxygen release. [3] Consequently, the Co can be substituted with Ni or Mn, which possess better chemical stabilities, to produce LiNiO 2 or LiMn 2 O 4 . [4, 5] Alas, Ni and Mn have lower structural stabilities than Co and consequently, the former can result in poor thermal stability and
doi:10.1002/aenm.202002655 fatcat:joatzejmcnfsxg4zbz7vtopuzi