Metabolic Alkalosis [chapter]

Holly Mabillard, John A Sayer
2018 Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders [Working Title]  
Metabolic alkalosis is a disorder where the primary defect, an increase in plasma bicarbonate concentration, leads to an increase in systemic pH. Here we review the causes of metabolic alkalosis with an emphasis on the inherited causes, namely Gitelman syndrome and Bartter syndrome and syndromes which mimic them. We detail the importance of understanding the kidney pathophysiology and molecular genetics in order to distinguish these syndromes from acquired causes. In particular we discuss the
more » ... bular transport of salt in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct. The effects of salt wasting, namely an increase in the reninangiotensin-aldosterone axis are discussed in order to explain the biochemical phenotypes and targeted treatment approaches to these conditions.
doi:10.5772/intechopen.78724 fatcat:jgx7txmt3zbbfaypacofizfyum