Key research on computer aided tolerancing

Yan-long Cao, Luc Mathieu, Jane Jiang
2015 Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A  
Computer aided tolerancing (CAT) covers a wide range of subjects including specification and standardization, tolerancing in design/manufacturing process/product life management, verification and metrology, and functional tolerancing. Dimensioning and tolerancing standards originated about 77 years ago in the form of various national and company standards that governed engineering drafting and documentation practices. These standards have evolved and their rapid development has brought about
more » ... y significant changes to tolerancing in design and manufacturing. The release of ISO 14405-1:2010 (ISO, 2010) has introduced a rich new set of size specification modifiers, which includes two-point and spherical local sizes least squares, maximum inscribed and minimum circumscribed associations, and calculated diameters. Morse et al. (2012) present "size" as a fundamental engineering notion from several viewpoints, trace its evolution in engineering drawings, and discuss the implications of the use of size modifiers. Many researchers have devoted their efforts to tolerancing modeling. Davidson et al. (2002) develop a tolerance maps (T-Maps) (Patent No. 6963824) model that is a hypothetical Euclidean volume of points, the shape, size, and internal subsets of which represent all possible variations in size, position, form, and orientation of a target feature. Jiang et al. (2014) describe the use of T-Maps and manufacturing maps (M-maps) to establish analytical relationships among all relevant design and machining tolerances for the transfer of cylindrical data. Clément et al. (1991) introduce a small displacement torsor (SDT) model using six small displacements to represent the position and orientation of an ideal surface in relation to another ideal surface in a kinematic way. Giordano et al. (2007) apply deviation domains to axi-symmetric cases and thus reduce the space to three dimensions at the maximum instead of six in the general case. Desrochers et al. (2003) put forward a unified Jacobian-Torsor model which combines the advantages of the torsor model and the Jacobian matrix. Ghie et al. (2010) describe how the same set of interval-based deterministic equations can be used in a statistical context. Anwer et al. (2013) investigate the fundamentals of the skin model at a conceptual, geometric, and computational level and present representation and simulation issues for product design. In another paper (Anwer et al., 2014) , they investigate the concept of skin model shapes that has been developed to address digital representation of "non-ideal" parts and extended to mechanical assemblies. This concept is an interesting solution for tolerance analysis in the same way of finite element analysis, inspection analysis, and other analysis in mechanical engineering based on discrete geometry. Tolerance analysis, as an essential element in industry, carries considerable weight in concurrent engineering, and represents the best way to solve
doi:10.1631/jzus.a1500093 fatcat:ldiv66e7d5bubopx4ltrbjskjq